Aplastic anemia


Aplastic anemia
Anemia due to failure of the bone marrow to produce blood cells, including red and white blood cells as well as platelets. Aplastic anemia frequently occurs without a known cause. Causes of aplastic include chemicals (benzene, toluene in glues, insecticides, solvents), drugs (chemotherapy, gold, seizure medications, antibiotics, and others), viruses (HIV, Epstein-Barr), radiation, immune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), pregnancy, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and inherited disorders (Fanconi's anemia). Symptoms of aplastic anemia depend upon the severity. Symptoms include fatigue, bruising, bleeding, shortness of breath, fever, chills, and less frequently, bone pain. The diagnosis of aplastic anemia is based on the presence of low red and white blood cell and platelet counts and a decrease in the normal cells of the bone marrow. Treatment of aplastic anemia is based on the severity of the condition and the age of the patient affected. All medications which could suppress the bone marrow are discontinued. Male hormone (androgens) are sometimes given to stimulate the suppressed bone marrow to become more active. Bone marrow stimulating factors are now manufactured in laboratories and are often given intravenously. Blood transfusions can be required. Precautions to avoid infections and even antibiotics are given when the white blood cell counts are severely lowered. Bone marrow transplantation is considered when genetically matched marrows are available. For older patients, suppression of the immune system may be necessary. This immunosuppression therapy can include antithymocyte globulin,

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aplastic anemia n anemia that is characterized by defective function of the blood-forming organs (as the bone marrow) and is caused by toxic agents (as chemicals or X-rays) or is idiopathic in origin called also hypoplastic anemia

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any of a diverse group of anemias characterized by bone marrow failure with reduction of hematopoietic cells and their replacement by fat, resulting in pancytopenia, often accompanied by granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. It may be hereditary; it may be secondary to causes such as toxic, radiant, or immunologic injury to bone marrow stem cells or their microenvironment; it may be associated with various diseases; or it may be idiopathic.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Aplastic anemia — A*plas tic a*ne mi*a, n. [from {aplasia[2]}.] (Med.) an anemia characterized by substantial reduction or cessation of production of red blood cells and hemoglobin by the bone marrow. Stedman Syn: Ehrlich s anemia; anemia gravis. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • aplastic anemia — [ā plas′tik] n. [< ModL aplasia, incomplete development (see A 2 & PLASIA) + IC] a form of anemia resulting from a failure of the bone marrow to produce adequate quantities of the essential blood components, including leukocytes and platelets …   English World dictionary

  • Aplastic anemia — ICDO = Caption = OMIM = 609135 OMIM mult = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 162 DiseasesDB = 866 MeshID = D000741 Aplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells.… …   Wikipedia

  • aplastic anemia — Pathol. severe anemia due to destruction or depressed functioning of the bone marrow, usually resulting from bone cancer, radiation, or the toxic effects of certain drugs or chemicals. [1930 35; A 6 + PLASTIC] * * * or anemia of bone marrow… …   Universalium

  • aplastic anemia — noun anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure • Syn: ↑aplastic anaemia • Hypernyms: ↑anemia, ↑anaemia …   Useful english dictionary

  • aplastic anemia — noun Date: 1928 anemia that is characterized by defective function of the blood forming organs (as the bone marrow) and is caused by toxic agents (as chemicals or X rays) or is idiopathic in origin …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • aplastic anemia — a•plas′tic ane′mia [[t]eɪˈplæs tɪk[/t]] n. pat severe anemia due to depressed functioning of the bone marrow, usu. resulting from bone cancer, radiation, or the toxic effects of drugs or chemicals • Etymology: 1930–35 …   From formal English to slang

  • aplastic anemia — A condition in which the bone marrow is unable to produce blood cells …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • Anemia, aplastic — Anemia due to failure of the bone marrow to produce blood cells, including red and white blood cells as well as platelets. Aplastic anemia frequently occurs without a known cause. Causes of aplastic include chemicals (benzene, toluene in glues,… …   Medical dictionary

  • Anemia — The condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. Persons with anemia may feel tired and fatigue …   Medical dictionary


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