Norwalk virus

: A family of small round viruses that are an important cause of viral gastroenteritis (viral inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Norwalk disease is a significant contributor to illness in the US. Only the common cold is reported more frequently as a cause of disease. About a third of all cases of viral gastroenteritis after infancy are due to Norwalk viruses. The Norwalk virus family contains a number of agents named after the places where outbreaks occurred. The Norwalk, Montgomery County, Snow Mountain (California) and Hawaii agents were identified in the US; the Taunton, Moorcroft, Barnett, and Amulree agents in the UK; and the Sapporo and Otofuke agents in Japan. The Norwalk viruses are all transmitted by fecal contamination of water and foods. Person-to-person transmission is far less common but has been documented. Water is the most common source of outbreaks and may include water from municipal supplies, wells, lakes, pools, and water stored aboard cruise ships. Shellfish and salad ingredients are the foods most often implicated. Eating raw or insufficiently steamed clams and oysters poses a high risk for infection with Norwalk virus. The percentage of individuals in developing countries who are immune at an early age is very high (as it is with poliovirus and other viruses transmitted by fecal contamination of water and foods). In the US the percentage increases gradually with age, reaching 50% in people over 18 years of age. Immunity, however, is not permanent and reinfection can occur. Norwalk disease is a mild and brief illness that develops 1-2 days after contaminated food or water is consumed and lasts for 24-60 hours. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and upon occasion headache and low fever. Severe illness requiring hospitalization is most unusual.

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Nor·walk virus 'nȯ(ə)r-.wȯk- n a single-stranded RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae (species Norwalk virus) that was first discovered in Norwalk, Ohio, and causes an infectious human gastroenteritis called also Norwalk agent

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the type species of the genus Norovirus; it is a common cause of epidemics of acute gastroenteritis, with diarrhea and vomiting lasting 24 to 48 hours.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Norwalk-Virus — [nå̱rwå̱k...; nach der amer. Stadt Norwalk (Ohio), in der die erste Epidemie ausbrach] s; , Gruppe von Viren, die vor allem bei Schulkindern und Jugendlichen Gastroenteritiden hervorrufen …   Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke

  • Norwalk-Virus — Humane Noroviren im TEM nach Negativkontrastierung (Markierung entspr. 50 nm) Die Spezies der humanpathogenen Noroviren sind unbehüllte, einzelsträngige RNA Viren mit positiver Polarität aus der Familie Caliciviridae und der gleichnamigen Gattung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Norwalk Virus — Gattung Norovirus Humane Noroviren im TEM nach Negativkontrastierung (Markierung entspr. 50 nm) Systematik Reich: Viren Ordnung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Norwalk virus — [ nɔ:wɔ:k] noun a virus which can cause epidemics of severe gastro enteritis. Origin 1970s: from Norwalk, a town in Ohio where the virus was isolated …   English new terms dictionary

  • Norwalk virus — Unclassified single stranded RNA virus causing common acute infectious gastroenteritis …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • Norwalk virus — noun Any of several viruses that cause acute gastrointestinal infection …   Wiktionary

  • Norwalk virus — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Norwalk, Ohio —   City   Uptown Norwalk, looking east on West Main Street Nickname(s): The Mapl …   Wikipedia

  • Norwalk — is the name of several places in the United States of America: Norwalk, California, a suburb of Los Angeles Norwalk, Connecticut, a city in southwestern Connecticut that contains several neighborhoods including Central Norwalk, East Norwalk,… …   Wikipedia

  • Norwalk — ist der Name mrhrerer Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Norwalk (Connecticut) Norwalk (Florida) Norwalk (Iowa) Norwalk (Kalifornien) Norwalk (Michigan) Norwalk (Ohio) Norwalk (Wisconsin) Sonstiges: Norwalk Virus, s. Norovirus Norwalk Motor Car… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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