trial

A test or experiment, usually conducted under specific conditions.
- clinical t. a controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other form of medical intervention.Four phases of clinical t. are distinguished. Phase I trials usually involve fewer than 100 healthy volunteers who are exposed to a new drug or vaccine. Such studies seek to establish optimal dosage and route of administration and to detect adverse reactions. Phase II trials generally involve 200–500 volunteers randomly assigned to control and study groups. These are pilot efficacy studies, with emphasis on immunogenicity in the case of vaccines, and on relative efficacy and safety in the case of drugs. Phase III trials, often multicenter, involve thousands of volunteers, randomly assigned to control and study groups. The aim is to generate statistically relevant data. Phase IV trials are conducted after a national drug registration authority (in the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration) has approved an agent for distribution or sale. They may explore specific pharmacologic effect, adverse reactions, or long-term effects.
- randomized controlled t. (RCT) an epidemiologic experiment in which subjects in a population are allocated randomly into groups, called “experimental” or “study” and “control” groups to receive or not receive an experimental therapeutic or preventive regimen, procedure, maneuver, or intervention.

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tri·al 'trī(-ə)l n
1) a tryout or experiment to test quality, value, or usefulness see clinical trial
2) one of a number of repetitions of an experiment

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tri·al (triґəl) (trīl) a test, study, or experiment.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Synonyms:

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  • trial — trial …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • trial — tri·al n [Anglo French, from trier to try]: a judicial examination of issues of fact or law disputed by parties for the purpose of determining the rights of the parties compare hearing, inquest at trial: in or during the course of a trial Merriam …   Law dictionary

  • trial — [ trijal ] n. m. et f. • 1951; « épreuve automobile » 1943; mot angl. « essai, épreuve » ♦ Anglic. 1 ♦ N. m. Course motocycliste. ⇒ enduro, motocross. Faire du trial. 2 ♦ N. m. ou f. Moto conçue pour ce type de course. Des trials. ● trial nom… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • trial — tri‧al [ˈtraɪəl] noun [countable] 1. LAW a legal process in which a court of law examines a case to decide whether someone is guilty of a crime: • Three former brokers were ordered to stand trial for securities fraud. 2. a process of testing a… …   Financial and business terms

  • Trial — en el Bosque Negro, Alemania. Se conoce como trial a la modalidad deportiva sobre ruedas con o sin motor donde se trata de superar diferentes obstáculos delimitados en una trazada concreta dentro de una zona señalizada, utilizando para ello;… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Trial — steht für (v. lat.: tres „drei“) einen Numerus, siehe Trial (Grammatik) (v. engl.: trial „Versuch“, „Test“, „Erprobung“) eine Fahrzeugsportart, die auf Geschicklichkeit beruht, siehe Trial (Sport), Trial (Motorrad) oder Einrad… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • trial — 1 test, proof, demonstration (see under PROVE) Analogous words: inspection, examination, scanning, scrutiny (see under SCRUTINIZE): *process, proceeding, procedure 2 Trial, tribulation, affliction, visitation, cross are comparable when they… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • trial — [trī′əl, trīl] n. [Anglo Fr < trier: see TRY] 1. a) the act or process of trying, testing, or putting to the proof; test b) a testing of qualifications, attainments, or progress; probation c) experimental treatment or operation; experiment 2 …   English World dictionary

  • trial — [adj] experimental balloon, exploratory, pilot, preliminary, probationary, provisional, tentative, test, testing; concepts 548,560 Ant. definite, known, proven trial [n1] test analysis, assay, attempt, audition, check, crack*, dry run*, effort,… …   New thesaurus

  • TRIAL — TRIAL, auch als Schweizerische Gesellschaft gegen Straflosigkeit bezeichnet, ist ein im Juni 2002 gegründeter Verein schweizerischen Rechts mit Sitz in Genf. Ziel des Vereins ist die Bekämpfung der Straflosigkeit von Völkermord, Kriegsverbrechen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • trial — ► NOUN 1) a formal examination of evidence in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings. 2) a test of performance, qualities, or suitability. 3) (trials) an event in which horses or dogs compete or perform. 4) something… …   English terms dictionary

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