substrate

1. The substance acted upon and changed by an enzyme; the reactant considered to be attacked in a chemical reaction. 2. The base on which an organism lives or grows; e.g., the s. on which microorganisms and cells grow in cell culture. [L. sub-sterno, pp. -stratus, to spread under]
- insulin receptor s.-1 a cytoplasmic protein that is a direct s. of the activated insulin receptor kinase. Insulin exposure results in its rapid phosphorylation at multiple tyrosine residues. Its phosphorylated sites associate with high affinity to certain cellular proteins. IRS-1 thus acts as an adaptor molecule that links the receptor kinase to various cellular activities regulated by insulin. IRS-1 is also phosphorylated after stimulation by insulinlike growth factor-1 and several interleukins.
- suicide s. a competitive inhibitor that is converted to an irreversible inhibitor at the active site of the enzyme. SYN: mechanism-based inhibitor, suicide inhibitor.

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sub·strate 'səb-.strāt n
1) SUBSTRATUM (1)
2) the base on which an organism lives
3) a substance acted upon (as by an enzyme)

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n.
the specific substance or substances on which a given enzyme acts. For example, starch is the substrate for salivary amylase; RNA is the substrate for ribonuclease.

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sub·strate (subґstrāt) 1. a substance upon which an enzyme acts. Symbol S. 2. a neutral substance containing a nutrient solution. 3. a surface upon which a different material is deposited or adhered, usually in a coating or layer.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Substrate — may mean: *Substrate (aquarium), the material used in the bottom of an aquarium *Substrate (biochemistry), a molecule that is acted upon by an enzyme *Substrate (materials science), the material on which a process is conducted *Substrate… …   Wikipedia

  • Substrate — Sub strate, n. A substratum. [R.] [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Substrate — Sub strate, a. Having very slight furrows. [R.] [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Substrate — Sub*strate , v. t. [L. substratus, p. p. of substrahere. See {Substratum}.] To strew or lay under anything. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] The melted glass being supported by the substrated sand. Boyle. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • substrate — substrate. См. субстрат. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Substrate — Substrate. См. Подложка. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • substrate — (n.) 1810, from Mod.L. substratum (see SUBSTRATUM (Cf. substratum)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • substrate — [sub′strāt΄] n. 1. SUBSTRATUM 2. Biochem. a substance acted upon, as by an enzyme 3. Biol. Bacteriology MEDIUM (n. 6) …   English World dictionary

  • substrate — n. the specific substance or substances on which a given enzyme acts. For example, starch is the substrate for salivary amylase; RNA is the substrate for ribonuclease …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • substrate — UK [ˈsʌbˌstreɪt] / US noun [countable] Word forms substrate : singular substrate plural substrates 1) biology the material that a plant or an animal that does not move much feeds on or uses as support 2) chemistry a substance on which a catalyst… …   English dictionary

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