- 1. A disease process involving a number of peripheral nerves (literal sense). 2. A nontraumatic generalized disorder of peripheral nerves, affecting the distal fibers most severely, with proximal shading ( e.g., the feet are affected sooner or more severely than the hands), and typically symmetrically; most often affects motor and sensory fibers almost equally, but can involve either one solely or very disproportionately; classified as axon degenerating (axonal), or demyelinating; many causes, particularly metabolic and toxic; familial or sporadic in nature. SYN: polyneuritis. SYN: multiple neuritis, symmetric distal neuropathy. [poly- + G. neuron, nerve, + pathos, disease]- arsenical p. an axon loss p. that results from subacute or chronic arsenic poisoning; almost always preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms; one of the heavy metal neuropathies.- axon loss p. a type of p. in which axon degeneration is the sole/predominant feature; many etiologies, particularly toxic and metabolic; on nerve conduction studies, affects amplitudes of the responses, but does not cause conduction slowing or block. SYN: axonal p..- chronic inflammatory demyelinating p. (CIDP) an uncommon, acquired, demyelinating sensorimotor p., clinically characterized by insidious onset, slow evolution, (either steady progression or stepwise), and chronic course; symmetric weakness is a predominant symptom, often involving proximal leg muscles, accompanied by paresthesias, but not pain; CSF examination shows elevated protein, while electrodiagnostic studies reveal evidence of a demyelinating process, primarily conduction slowing rather than block; sometimes responds to prednisone.- critical illness p. a diffuse axon loss sensorimotor p. seen in severely ill patients, usually in the intensive care unit; most patients have been on multiple drugs and cannot be weaned from ventilatory support; electrodiagnostic studies show evidence of an axon loss p., predominantly motor; of unknown etiology.- demyelinating p. a type of p. in which almost solely the peripheral nerve myelin is affected; can be familial ( e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1) or acquired ( e.g., Guillain-Barré syndrome); on motor nerve conduction studies, manifested as conduction slowing or block. SYN: segmental demyelinating p..- diabetic p. a distal, symmetric, generally sensorimotor p. that is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus.- nitrofurantoin p. an axon loss p., often severe, seen in some patients treated with nitrofurantoin, particularly patients with chronic renal failure.- nutritional p. an axon loss p. noted in beriberi, chronic alcoholism, and other clinical states, resulting from thiamin deficiency.- segmental demyelinating p. SYN: demyelinating p..- uremic p. a distal sensory and motor p. without conspicuous inflammation and ascribed to the metabolic effects of chronic renal failure.
* * *poly·neu·rop·a·thy -n(y)u̇-'räp-ə-thē n, pl -thies a disease of nerves esp a noninflammatory degenerative disease of nerves usu. caused by toxins (as of lead)
* * *n.
* * *poly·neu·rop·a·thy (pol″e-n-ropґə-the) [poly- + neuropathy] neuropathy of several peripheral nerves simultaneously; called also multiple or peripheral neuropathy. Some conditions that are actually polyneuropathies are called neuropathies; see under neuropathy.
Medical dictionary. 2011.
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