pneumothorax

The presence of free air or gas in the pleural cavity. [G. pneuma, air, + thorax]
- artificial p. p. produced by the injection of air, or a more slowly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, into the pleural space; formerly used for collapse therapy of tuberculosis. SYN: therapeutic p..
- catamenial p. p. occurring in young women during menstruation, usually on the right side.
- extrapleural p. the presence of a gas between the endothoracic fascia-pleural layer and the adjacent chest wall.
- iatrogenic p. p. caused by a medical procedure, most often central venous catheter insertion, thoracentesis, or transbronchial and transthoracic lung biopsy.
- open p. a free communication between the atmosphere and the pleural space either via the lung or through the chest wall. SYN: sucking chest wound.
- pressure p. SYN: tension p..
- p. simplex p., without known cause, in an otherwise healthy person.
- spontaneous p. p. occurring without iatrogenic or other trauma; primary spontaneous p. generally occurs in young people with apical blebs but otherwise normal lungs; secondary spontaneous p. occurs in people with underlying lung disease, most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, less often, interstitial lung disease, pneumonia, lung abscess, and lung tumors.
- tension p. a p. in which air enters the pleural cavity and is trapped during expiration; intrathoracic pressure builds to levels higher than atmospheric pressure, compresses the lung, and may displace the mediastinum and its structures toward the opposite side, with consequent cardiopulmonary impairment. SYN: pressure p..
- therapeutic p. SYN: artificial p..
- traumatic p. p. caused by blunt or penetrating chest injury.

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pneu·mo·tho·rax .n(y)ü-mə-'thō(ə)r-.aks, -'thȯ(ə)r- n, pl -tho·rax·es or -tho·ra·ces -'thōr-ə-.sēz a condition in which air or other gas is present in the pleural cavity and which occurs spontaneously as a result of disease or injury of lung tissue, rupture of air-filled pulmonary cysts, or puncture of the chest wall or is induced as a therapeutic measure to collapse the lung see TENSION PNEUMOTHORAX compare OLEOTHORAX

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n.
air in the pleural cavity. Any breach of the lung surface or chest wall allows air to enter the pleural cavity, causing the lung to collapse. The leak can occur without apparent cause, in otherwise healthy people (spontaneous pneumothorax), or result from injuries to the chest (traumatic pneumothorax). In tension pneumothorax a breach in the lung surface acts as a valve, admitting air into the pleural cavity when the patient breathes in but preventing its escape when he breathes out. This air must be let out by surgical incision.
A former treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis - artificial pneumothorax - was the deliberate injection of air into the pleural cavity to collapse the lung and allow the tuberculous areas to heal.

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pneu·mo·tho·rax (noo″mo-thorґaks) [pneumo- + thorax] an accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space; three types are distinguished: traumatic p., primary spontaneous p., and secondary spontaneous p. It was formerly sometimes induced for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis; see artificial p.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pneumothorax — Classification and external resources Right sided spontaneous pneumothorax (left in the image). An arrow indicating the edge of the collapsed lung. ICD 10 J …   Wikipedia

  • pneumothorax — [ pnømotɔraks ] n. m. • 1803; de pneumo , pour pneumato , et thorax 1 ♦ Méd. Épanchement de gaz dans la cavité pleurale, généralement par perforation de la plèvre en communication avec le poumon. 2 ♦ (1911) Méd. Pneumothorax (artificiel) :… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • pneumothorax — 1821, from Fr. pneumothorax (1803); from Gk. pneumon (see PNEUMONIA (Cf. pneumonia)) + THORAX (Cf. thorax) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Pneumothorax — Pneu mo*tho rax, n. [Gr. ? air + E. thorax.] (Med.) A condition in which air or other gas is present in the cavity of the chest; called also {pneumatothorax}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Pneumothōrax — Pneumothōrax, Luftaustritt in den Brustfellsack, gewöhnlich in Folge von Durchbohrungen des die Lunge überkleidenden Theils des Brustfells od. eines Bronchus u. zwar zumeist durch Tuberkelgeschwüre, aber auch durch Lungenbrand, od. vom Magen u.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Pneumothorax — (Pneumatothorax, griech.), Luftansammlung im Brustfellraum. Die Luft gelangt dahin entweder von außen durch Brustwunden oder häufiger von innen durch Lungenzerreißung, indem ein Luftröhrenzweig und das Lungenfell zerrissen wird. Die Lunge zieht… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • pneumothorax — [no͞o΄mō thôr′aks΄, nyo͞o΄mō thôr′aks] n. [ModL: see PNEUMO & THORAX] the presence of air or gas in a pleural cavity, esp. as a result of perforation or rupture of the lung tissue …   English World dictionary

  • Pneumothorax — En médecine (pneumologie), le pneumothorax est un cas d urgence médicale consistant en un épanchement d air dans la cavité pleurale (accollement de la plèvre pariétale et viscérale, on parle de séreuse, elles tapissent respectivement la cage… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pneumothorax — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 J93.0 Spontaner Spannungspneumothorax J93.1 Sonstiger Spontanpneumothorax J93.2 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • pneumothorax — /nooh meuh thawr aks, thohr , nyooh /, n. Pathol. the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity. [1815 25; < NL; see PNEUMO , THORAX] * * * ▪ pathology       condition in which air accumulates in the pleural space, causing it to expand and… …   Universalium

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