phosphorylase

A phosphorylated enzyme cleaving poly(1,4-α-d-glucosyl)n with orthophosphate to form poly(1,4-α-d-glucosyl)n−1 and α-d-glucose 1-phosphate. SYN: α-glucan p., glycogen p., P enzyme, p. a, polyphosphorylase.
- p. a SYN: p..
- p. b dephosphorylated p. a. Under most conditions, the inactive form of p.; active in the presence of AMP. See p. phosphatase.
- p. kinase an enzyme that uses ATP to phosphorylate p. b and thus reform p. a, the active form of p.; the active form of p. kinase is itself a phosphorylated protein; upon dephosphorylation of p. kinase, the enzyme is inactivated; it can be rephosphorylated with a cAMP-dependent protein kinase; p. kinase is deficient in certain types of glycogen storage disease.
- p. phosphatase an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of one p. a into two p. b, with the release of four orthophosphates. SYN: p.-rupturing enzyme.

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phos·phor·y·lase fäs-'fȯr-ə-.lāz n any of a group of enzymes that catalyze phosphorolysis with the formation of organic phosphates (as glucose-1-phosphate in the breakdown and synthesis of glycogen) and that occur in animal and plant tissues

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n.
any enzyme that catalyses the combination of an organic molecule (usually glucose) with a phosphate group (phosphorylation). Phosphorylase is found in the liver and kidney, where it is involved in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate.

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phos·phor·y·lase (fos-forґə-lās) 1. any of a group of enzymes catalyzing phosphorolysis of glycosides, transferring the cleaved glycosyl group to inorganic phosphate. The term is usually qualified by adding the name of the substrate acted upon; when used alone it usually denotes glycogen phosphorylase (q.v.) in animals or starch phosphorylase in plants. 2. any of a group of transferases that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group to an organic acceptor.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Phosphorylase — is a family of allosteric enzymes that catalyze the production of glucose 1 phosphate from a polyglucose such as glycogen, starch or maltodextrin.FunctionMore generally, phosphorylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a phosphate group… …   Wikipedia

  • phosphorylase — [ fɔsfɔrilaz ] n. f. • 1949; de phosphoryle et ase ♦ Biochim. Enzyme responsable de la dégradation du glycogène dans le muscle et dans le foie. phosphorylase [fɔsfɔʀilaz] n. f. ÉTYM. 1949, cit.; de phosphoryle, et suff. ase. ❖ …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • phosphorylase — [fäs′fə ri lās΄] n. [ PHOSPHOR(O) + YL + ASE] any of a group of enzymes, widely distributed in plant and animal tissues, that help inorganic phosphates break down glycogen and other complex sugars …   English World dictionary

  • Phosphorylase — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt bedarf einer Überarbeitung. Hilf mit, ihn zu verbessern, und entferne anschließend diese Markierung. Als Phosphorylasen bezeichnet man eine Familie allosterischer Enzyme, welche die Produktion von Glukose 1 Phosphat… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Phosphorylase — Phos|pho|ry|la|se [↑ Phosphoryl u. ↑ ase], die; , n: Bez. für ein in Leber u. Muskeln vorkommendes, als Transferase wirkendes Enzym, das Glykogen unter Bildung von Glucose 1 phosphat abbaut (↑ Phosphorolyse). Die aktive Form der P. (Phosphorylase …   Universal-Lexikon

  • phosphorylase — (= glycogen phosphorylase) Enzyme that catalyses the sequential removal of glycosyl residues from glycogen to yield one glucose 1 phosphate per reaction. Its activity is controlled by phosphorylation (by phosphorylase kinase) …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • phosphorylase — n. any enzyme that catalyses the combination of an organic molecule (usually glucose) with a phosphate group (phosphorylation). Phosphorylase is found in the liver and kidney, where it is involved in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose 1… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • phosphorylase — noun Date: 1939 any of the enzymes that catalyze phosphorolysis with the formation of organic phosphates …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Phosphorylase — Les phosphorylases sont les enzymes responsables de la phosphorolyse. Ils ajoutent un ion phosphate PO43 (ou orthophosphate) à partir d un ion hydrogénophosphate HPO42 (parfois appelé phosphate inorganique[1] ou encore phosphate d hydrogène) sur… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • phosphorylase — /fos feuhr euh lays , layz , fos fawr euh , for /, n. Biochem. any enzyme, occurring widely in animal and plant tissue, that in the presence of an inorganic phosphate catalyzes the conversion of glycogen into sugar phosphate. [1935 40; PHOSPHOR + …   Universalium

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