Graft-versus-host disease

A complication of bone marrow transplants in which T cells in the donor bone marrow graft go on the offensive and attack the host’s tissues. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is seen most often in cases where the blood marrow donor is unrelated to the patient or when the donor is related to the patient but not a perfect match. There are two forms of GVHD: an early form called acute GVHD that occurs soon after the transplant when the white cells are on the rise and a late form called chronic GVHD. Acute GVHD typically occurs within the first three months after a transplant and can affect the skin, liver, stomach, and/or intestines. The earliest sign is usually a rash on the hand, feet, and face which may spread and look like a sunburn. Severe problems with acute GVHD may include blisters on the skin, watery or bloody diarrhea with cramping, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) reflecting liver involvement. Chronic GVHD typically occurs 2-3 months after the transplant and causes symptoms similar to those of autoimmune disorders such as lupus and scleroderma. Patients develop a dry, itchy rash which is raised and like alligator skin. There also may be hair loss, decrease in sweating in the skin, and premature greying of the hair. Mouth dryness is a common symptom. It may progress to food sensitivity and spicy and acid food may sting. The eyes may also be involved with dryness and feel irritated and become red. Almost any organ can be affected by chronic GVHD. Prevention of severe GVHD includes elutriation (T-cell depletion), a technique in which the donor bone marrow is largely depleted of the T-cells that cause GVHD. Most patients also receive immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and methotrexate. Significant GVHD is usually treated with steroids and sometimes a drug called anti-thymocyte globulin.

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graft-versus-host disease n a bodily condition that results when T cells from a usu. allogeneic tissue or organ transplant and esp. a bone marrow transplant react immunologically against the recipient's antigens attacking cells and tissues, that affects esp. the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver with symptoms including skin rash, fever, diarrhea, liver dysfunction, abdominal pain, and anorexia, and that may be fatal abbr. GVHD called also graft-versus-host reaction

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a condition that occurs following bone marrow transplantation and sometimes blood transfusion, in which lymphocytes from the graft attack specific tissues in the host. The skin, gut, and liver are the most severely affected. Drugs that suppress the immune reaction, such as steroids and ciclosporin, and antibodies directed against lymphocytes reduce the severity of the tissue damage.

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(GVHD) disease caused by the immune response of histoincompatible, immunocompetent donor cells against the tissues of an immunoincompetent host; this can occur as a complication of bone marrow transplantation or as a result of maternal-fetal blood transfusion or therapeutic blood transfusion in which the recipient has a cellular immunodeficiency disease. Clinical manifestations include skin disease ranging from a maculopapular eruption to epidermal necrosis; intestinal disease with diarrhea, malabsorption, and abdominal pain; and liver dysfunction caused by cholestatic hepatitis or venoocclusive disease, marked by serum enzyme abnormalities. Called also graft-versus-host reaction.

Graft-versus-host disease. Coalescence of bullae and epidermal necrosis leading to large areas of denudation after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.


Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Graft-versus-host disease — Infobox Disease Name = Graft versus host disease DiseasesDB = 5388 ICD10 = ICD10|T|86|0|t|80 ICD9 = ICD9|996.85 MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 926 eMedicine mult = eMedicine2|ped|893 eMedicine2|derm|478 MeshID = D006086Graft… …   Wikipedia

  • Graft-versus-Host-Disease — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 T86.01 Akute Graft versus host Krankheit, Grad I und II T86.02 Akute Graft versus host Krankheit, Grad III und IV T86.03 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Graft-versus-Host Disease — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 T86.01 Akute Graft versus host Krankheit, Grad I und II T86.02 Akute Graft versus host Krankheit, Grad III und IV T86.03 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • graft-versus-host disease — noun : a bodily condition that results when T cells from a usually allogeneic tissue or organ transplant and especially a bone marrow transplant react immunologically against the recipient s antigens attacking cells and tissues, that affects… …   Useful english dictionary

  • graft-versus-host disease — graft′ ver sus host′ disease n. pat a reaction in which the cells of transplanted tissue immunologically attack the cells of the host …   From formal English to slang

  • graft-versus-host disease — /graft verr seuhs hohst , grahft / a reaction in which the cells of transplanted tissue immunologically attack the cells of the host organism, occurring esp. in bone marrow transplants. [1970 75] * * * …   Universalium

  • graft-versus-host disease — GVHD a condition that occurs following bone marrow transplantation and sometimes blood transfusion, in which lymphocytes from the graft attack specific tissues in the host. The skin, gut, and liver are the most severely affected. Drugs that… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • graft-versus-host disease — A disease that results when mature post thymic T cells in donor grafts (e.g., bone marrow) recognize the host as foreign and attack it …   Dictionary of microbiology

  • graft-versus-host disease — noun Date: 1965 a potentially fatal bodily condition that results when T cells from a tissue or organ transplant and especially a bone marrow transplant react immunologically against the recipient s antigens attacking cells and tissues …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • graft-versus-host disease — The rejection of transplanted organs by the recipient s immune system, due to attack of the recipient s T lymphocytes on the transplanted organ caused by differences in major histocompatibility complex proteins …   Glossary of Biotechnology

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