- * * *A disease of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure, excavation, and atrophy of the optic nerve; produces defects in the field of vision. [G. glaukoma, opacity of the crystalline lens, fr. glaukos, bluish green]- angle-closure g. primary g. in which contact of the iris with the peripheral cornea excludes aqueous humor from the trabecular drainage meshwork. SYN: acute g., closed-angle g., narrow-angle g..- aphakic g. g. following cataract removal.- α-chymotrypsin-induced g. transient secondary g. following the use of α-chymotrypsin in cataract extraction.- combined g. g. with angle-closure and open-angle mechanisms in the same eye.- compensated g. SYN: open-angle g..- congenital g. SYN: buphthalmia.- corticosteroid-induced g. g. caused by a hereditary predisposition in which local instillation of eyedrops containing corticosteroid causes increased intraocular pressure.- ghost cell g. g. occurring after vitrectomy, arising from erythrocyte membranes blocking outflow channels of aqueous humor.- low-tension g. optic nerve atrophy and excavation with typical field defects of g. but without abnormal increase in intraocular pressure. SYN: normal-tension g..- malignant g. secondary g. caused by forward displacement of the iris and lens, obliterating the anterior chamber; usually follows a filtering operation for primary g..- neovascular g. g. occurring in rubeosis iridis.- normal-tension g. SYN: low-tension g..- open-angle g. primary g. in which the aqueous humor has free access to the trabecular meshwork. SYN: chronic g., compensated g., simple g., g. simplex.- phacogenic g. SYN: phacomorphic g..- phacolytic g. g. secondary to hypermature cataract and occlusion of the trabecular drainage meshwork by lens material.- phacomorphic g. secondary g. caused by either excessive size or spherical shape of the lens. SYN: phacogenic g..- pigmentary g. g. associated with erosion of pigment from the posterior iris, and with an accumulation of pigment particles in the trabecular meshwork.- pseudoexfoliative g. g. occurring in association with widespread deposition of cellular organelles on the lens capsule, ocular blood vessel s, iris, and ciliary body. SEE ALSO: pseudoexfoliation of lens capsule.- pupillary block g. g. secondary to failure of the aqueous humor to pass through the pupil to the anterior chamber.
* * *glau·co·ma glau̇-'kō-mə, glȯ- n a disease of the eye marked by increased pressure within the eyeball that can result in damage to the optic disk and gradual loss of vision
* * *n.a condition in which loss of vision occurs because of an abnormally high pressure in the eye. In most cases there is no other ocular disease. This is known as primary glaucoma and there are two pathologically distinct types: acute and chronic simple. In acute (or angle-closure) glaucoma, there is an abrupt rise in pressure due to sudden closure of the angle between the cornea and iris where aqueous humour usually drains from the eye. This is accompanied by pain and marked blurring of vision associated with inflammation of the anterior segment. In the more common chronic simple (or open-angle) glaucoma, the pressure increases gradually, usually without producing pain, and the visual loss is insidious. The same type of visual loss may rarely occur in eyes with a normal pressure: this is called low-tension glaucoma. Primary glaucoma occurs increasingly with age and is an important cause of blindness. Secondary glaucoma may occur when other ocular disease impairs the normal circulation of the aqueous humour and causes the intraocular pressure to rise.In all types of glaucoma the eventual problem is to reduce the intraocular pressure. Drops are inserted into the eye at regular intervals to improve the outflow of aqueous humour from the eye and/or to reduce the production of aqueous humour. Drugs used for this purpose include beta blockers (e.g. timolol, levobunolol, carteolol), carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g. brinzolamide, dorzolamide), alpha-receptor stimulants (e.g. apraclonidine, brimonidine), and latanoprost. If this treatment is ineffective, surgery may be performed to make a new channel through which the aqueous humour may drain from the eye in sufficient quantities to allow the pressure to return to normal. Such operations are known as drainage or filtering operations.
* * *glau·co·ma (glaw-) (glou-koґmə) [Gr. glaukōma opacity of the crystalline lens (from the dull gray gleam of the affected eye)] a group of eye diseases usually characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure that causes pathologic changes in the optic disk and typical defects in the field of vision. glaucomatous adj
Medical dictionary. 2011.
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glaucoma — 1640s, from Gk. glaukoma cataract, opacity of the lens (cataracts and glaucoma not distinguished until c.1705), from OMA (Cf. oma) + glaukos, an adj. of uncertain origin (see GLAUCOUS (Cf. glaucous)) … Etymology dictionary
glaucoma — (Del lat. glaucōma, y este del gr. γλαύκωμα, der. de γλαυκός, verde claro, por el color verdoso que toma la pupila en esta afección). m. Med. Enfermedad del ojo, caracterizada por el aumento de la presión intraocular, dureza del globo del ojo,… … Diccionario de la lengua española
Glaucoma — Glau*co ma, n. [L., fr. Gr. glay kwma, fr. glayko s light gray, blue gray.] (Med.) Dimness or abolition of sight, with a diminution of transparency, a bluish or greenish tinge of the refracting media of the eye, and a hard inelastic condition of… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Glaucōma — (Med.), s. Glaukom … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Glaucoma — vgl. Glaukom … Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke
glaucoma — |ô| s. m. Endurecimento do globo ocular, por excesso da tensão interna, que provoca uma diminuição da visão e dores de cabeça … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
glaucoma — sustantivo masculino 1. (no contable) Área: medicina Enfermedad ocular que se caracteriza por un aumento de la presión dentro del ojo y la atrofia de la retina … Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española
glaucoma — ► NOUN Medicine ▪ a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball, causing gradual loss of sight. ORIGIN Greek glauk ma, from glaukos bluish green or grey (because of the grey green haze in the pupil) … English terms dictionary
glaucoma — [glô kō′mə, gloukō′mə] n. [L < Gr glaukōma < glaukos (see GLAUCO ) + OMA] any of a group of related eye disorders characterized by increased pressure within the eye which impairs the vision and may slowly cause eye damage and total loss of… … English World dictionary