nicotine

1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine; a poisonous volatile alkaloid derived from tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and responsible for many of the effects of tobacco; it first stimulates (small doses), then depresses (large doses) at autonomic ganglia and myoneural junctions; its principal urinary metabolite is cotinine. N. is an important tool in physiologic and pharmacologic investigation, is used as an insecticide and fumigant, and forms salts with most acids. SEE ALSO: tobacco. [Nicotiana, genus name of botanical source, + - ine] N. in inhaled tobacco smoke or in smokeless tobacco applied to buccal or nasal mucosa enters the circulation within seconds, causing an increase in heart rate, ventricular stroke volume, and myocardial oxygen consumption, as well as euphoria, heightened alertness, and a sense of relaxation. N. use is powerfully addictive, readily leading to habituation, tolerance, and dependency. Withdrawal from n. causes restlessness, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and craving for n.. Addiction to n. is the reason for most tobacco use and is thus directly responsible for the resulting morbidity and mortality.

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nic·o·tine 'nik-ə-.tēn n a poisonous alkaloid C10H14N2 that is the chief active principle of tobacco and that is used as an insecticide
Ni·cot nē-kō Jean (1530?-1600)
French diplomat. While French ambassador to Portugal, Nicot introduced tobacco to France by sending tobacco seeds as a gift to the French court in 1560. Linnaeus named the plant genus Nicotiana in his honor in 1753.

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n.
a poisonous alkaloid derived from tobacco, responsible for the dependence of regular smokers on cigarettes. In small doses nicotine has a stimulating effect on the autonomic nervous system, causing in regular smokers such effects as raised blood pressure and pulse rate and impaired appetite. Large doses cause paralysis of the autonomic ganglia. Nicotine replacement therapy (nicotine products formulated as chewing gum, skin patches, nasal sprays, etc.) is used as an aid to stop smoking.

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nic·o·tine (nikґo-tēn) (nikґo-tin) [L. nicotiana tobacco] a very poisonous, colorless, soluble fluid alkaloid with a pyridine-like odor and a burning taste, obtained from tobacco or produced synthetically. It is used as an agricultural insecticide and in pharmacological and physiological studies for its neurological effects (see also nicotinic) [USP] a preparation of nicotine, administered orally, intranasally, by inhalation, or as a transdermal patch as an aid to smoking cessation; also used in veterinary medicine as an external parasiticide.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • NICOTINE — Lorsqu’en 1492 Christophe Colomb et ses marins découvrent l’Amérique, ils trouvent dans l’île de San Salvador des hommes qui portent à leur bouche une certaine herbe qu’ils allument avec un tison pour se régaler de son parfum; ce sont sans doute… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Nicotine — Structure de la nicotine Général Nom IUPAC (S) 3 (1 méthyl 2 pyrrolidinyl)pyridine …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nicotine — Desarrollador Hyriand Página web oficial Información general Última versión estable 1.0.8 13 de febrero de …   Wikipedia Español

  • Nicotine — Nic o*tine (? or ?), n. [F. nicotine. See {Nicotian}.] (Chem.) An alkaloid which is the active principle of tobacco ({C10H14N2}). It occurs in tobacco plants ({Nicotiana tabacum} and {Nicotiana rusticum}) to the extent of 2 to 8%, in combination… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • nicotine — (n.) poisonous alkaloid found in tobacco leaves, 1819, from Fr. nicotine, earlier nicotiane, from Mod.L. Nicotiana, formal botanical name for the tobacco plant, named for Jean Nicot (c.1530 1600), French ambassador to Portugal, who sent tobacco… …   Etymology dictionary

  • nicotine — nicotine. См. никотин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • nicotine — ► NOUN ▪ a toxic oily liquid which is the chief active constituent of tobacco. ORIGIN named after Jaques Nicot, a 16th century diplomat who introduced tobacco to France …   English terms dictionary

  • nicotine — [nik′ə tēn΄, nik΄ə tēn′] n. [Fr < nicotiane, the tobacco plant < ModL nicotiana (herba), Nicot s (plant), after Jean Nicot (1530 1600), Fr ambassador at Lisbon, who first introduced tobacco into France (1560)] a toxic, addictive, water… …   English World dictionary

  • Nicotine — This article is about the chemical compound. For other uses, see Nicotine (disambiguation). Nicotine Systematic (IUPAC) name …   Wikipedia

  • nicotine — nicotined, adj. nicotineless, adj. /nik euh teen , tin, nik euh teen /, n. Chem. a colorless, oily, water soluble, highly toxic, liquid alkaloid, C10H14N2, found in tobacco and valued as an insecticide. [1810 20; < F; see NICOTIANA, INE2] * * *… …   Universalium

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