glycolysis

The energy-yielding conversion of d-glucose to lactic acid (instead of pyruvate oxidation products) in various tissues, notably muscle, when sufficient oxygen is not available (as in an emergency situation); since molecular oxygen is not consumed in the process, this is frequently referred to as “anaerobic g.” Cf.:Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. SYN: glucolysis. [glyco- + G. lysis, a loosening]

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gly·col·y·sis glī-'käl-ə-səs n, pl -y·ses -.sēz the enzymatic breakdown of a carbohydrate (as glucose or glycogen) by way of phosphate derivatives with the production of pyruvic or lactic acid and energy stored in high-energy phosphate bonds of ATP called also Embden-Meyerhof pathway
gly·co·lyt·ic .glī-kə-'lit-ik adj
gly·co·lyt·i·cal·ly -i-k(ə-)lē adv

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n.
the conversion of glucose, by a series of ten enzyme-catalysed reactions, to lactic acid. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and the first nine reactions (converting glucose to pyruvate) form the first stage of cellular respiration. The process involves the production of a small amount of energy (in the form of ATP), which is used for biochemical work. The final reaction of glycolysis (converting pyruvate to lactic acid) provides energy for short periods of time when oxygen consumption exceeds demand; for example, during bursts of intense muscular activity. See also lactic acid.

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gly·col·y·sis (gli-kolґə-sis) [glyco- + -lysis] the anaerobic enzymatic conversion of glucose to the simpler compounds lactate and pyruvate, resulting in energy stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as occurs in muscle; it differs from respiration in that organic substances, rather than molecular oxygen, are used as electron acceptors. See Embden-Meyerhof pathway, under pathway.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • glycolysis — glycolysis. См. гликолиз. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • glycolysis — (n.) 1892, from GLYCO (Cf. glyco ) + Gk. lysis (see LYSIS (Cf. lysis)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • glycolysis — [glī käl′i sis] n. [ GLYCO + LYSIS] a complex series of cellular biochemical reactions, not requiring oxygen, that splits glucose, glycogen, or other carbohydrates into pyruvic, or lactic, acid while storing energy in ATP molecules glycolytic… …   English World dictionary

  • Glycolysis — See also: Gluconeogenesis, which carries out a process wherein glucose is synthesized rather than catabolized. Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small… …   Wikipedia

  • glycolysis — n. the conversion of glucose, by a series of ten enzyme catalysed reactions, to lactic acid. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and the first nine reactions (converting glucose to pyruvate) form the first stage of cellular… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • glycolysis — A process in which glucose (sugar) is partially broken down by cells in enzyme reactions that do not need oxygen. Glycolysis is one method that cells use to produce energy. When glycolysis is linked with other enzyme reactions that use oxygen,… …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • glycolysis — /gluy kol euh sis/, n. Biochem. the catabolism of carbohydrates, as glucose and glycogen, by enzymes, with the release of energy and the production of lactic or pyruvic acid. [1890 95; GLYCO + LYSIS] * * * or glycolytic pathway or Embden Meyerhof …   Universalium

  • glycolysis — glikolizė statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Fermentinis anaerobinis sacharidų skaidymas. atitikmenys: angl. glycolysis rus. гликолиз …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • glycolysis — noun Etymology: New Latin Date: 1892 the enzymatic breakdown of a carbohydrate (as glucose) by way of phosphate derivatives with the production of pyruvic or lactic acid and energy stored in high energy phosphate bonds of ATP • glycolytic… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • glycolysis — n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; lyein, to break up] The enzymatic breakdown of glucose to lactic acid or pyruvic acid with the release of energy in the form of high energy phosphate bonds …   Dictionary of invertebrate zoology

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