glutamine

The δ-amide of glutamic acid, derived by oxidation from proline in the liver or by the combination of glutamic acid with ammonia; the l-isomer is present in proteins and in blood and other tissues, and is an important source of urinary ammonia, being broken down in the kidney by the action of the enzyme glutaminase; nonenzymatically, it is converted to 5-oxoproline.
- g. aminotransferase an enzyme that reversibly reacts l-g. with α-ketoglutarate to produce α-ketoglutaramate and l-glutamate; α-ketoglutaramate is elevated in certain cases of hepatocoma. SYN: g. transaminase.
- g. synthetase an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of l-glutamic acid, ammonia, and ATP to g., ADP, and orthophosphate; one of the few known mammalian enzymes that uses ammonium ion as a substrate under physiological conditions.
- g. transaminase SYN: g. aminotransferase.

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glu·ta·mine 'glüt-ə-.mēn n a crystalline amino acid C5H10N2O3 that is found both free and in proteins in plants and animals and that yields glutamic acid and ammonia on hydrolysis abbr. Gln

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n.

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glu·ta·mine (glooґtə-mēn) [USP] the monoamide of glutamic acid, a nonessential amino acid occurring in the juices of many plants and in some animal tissues; it is an important carrier of urinary ammonia and is broken down in the kidney by the enzyme glutaminase. Symbols Gln and Q. See also table at amino acid.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Glutamine — L ou S(+) glutamine (énantiomère biologique) D ou R …   Wikipédia en Français

  • glutamine — [ glytamin ] n. f. • 1884; de glutamique ♦ Biochim. Un des vingt acides aminés constituant les protéines, amide de l acide glutamique. ● glutamine nom féminin Acide aminé permettant à l organisme de neutraliser l action toxique de l ammoniaque en …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • glutamine — glutamine. См. глутамин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • glutamine — [glo͞ot′ə mēn΄, glo͞ot′əmin] n. [ GLUT(EN) + AMINE] a nonessential amino acid, H2NC(O)(CH2) 2CH(NH2)COOH: see AMINO ACID …   English World dictionary

  • Glutamine — NatOrganicBox Chemical structure of L glutamine name=(2S) 2 amino 4 carbamoyl butanoic acid PubChem = 738 CAS = 56 85 9 ChemSpiderID = 718 SMILES = N [C@@H] (CCC(N)=O)C(O)=O C=5 | H=10 | N=2 | O=3 mass=146.15 g/molGlutamine (abbreviated as Gln or …   Wikipedia

  • glutamine — (= Gln; Q; 146 D) One of the 20 amino acids commonly found (and directly coded for) in proteins. It is the amide at the g carboxyl of the amino acid glutamate. Glutamine can participate in covalent cross linking reactions between proteins, by… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • glutamine — /glooh teuh meen , min/, n. Biochem. a crystalline amino acid, HOOCCH(NH2)CH2CH2CONH2, related to glutamic acid. Abbr.: Gln; Symbol: Q [1880 85; GLUT(EN) + AMINE] * * * One of the nonessential amino acids, closely related to glutamic acid. It is… …   Universalium

  • glutamine — glutaminas statusas T sritis chemija formulė H₂NCOCH₂CH₂CH(NH₂)COOH santrumpa( os) Gln, Q, Glu NH₂ atitikmenys: angl. glutamine rus. глутамин ryšiai: sinonimas – 2 amino 4 karbamoilbutano rūgštis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • glutamine — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary gluten + amine Date: circa 1885 a crystalline amino acid C5H10N2O3 that is found both free and in proteins in plants and animals and that yields glutamic acid and ammonia on hydrolysis …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • glutamine — noun A nonessential amino acid CHNO found in most animal and plant proteins. Syn: Gln …   Wiktionary

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