dextran

1. Any of several water-soluble high molecular weight glucose polymers (average MW 75,000; ranging between 1,000 and 40,000,000) produced by the action of members of the family Lactobacillaceae and certain other microorganisms on sucrose; used in isotonic sodium chloride solution for the treatment of shock, and in distilled water for the relief of the edema of nephrosis; lower molecular weight d. ( e.g., MW 40,000) improves blood flow in areas of stasis by reducing cellular aggregation. 2. Poly(α-1,6-glucose); α-1,6-glucan with branch points (1,2; 1,3; 1,4) and spacing of these characteristic of the species; used as plasma substitutes or expanders. See dextransucrase.
- d. 110 d. (average MW 110,000) available as 5% solution in water or saline solution; used as a plasma volume expander.
- d. 40 d. (average MW 40,000) used as a plasma volume expander and blood flow adjuvant.
- d. 70 d. (average MW 70,000) used as a plasma volume expander.
- d. 75 d. (average MW 75,000) used as a plasma volume expander.
- acid d. the product of acid and heat treatment of d..
- animal d. SYN: glycogen.
- blue d. high molecular weight d. containing a blue chlorotriazine dye, Cibacron Blue; used to measure the void volumes in gel filtration columns, as well as checking column packing.
- d. sulfate the sodium salt of sulfuric acid esters of the polysaccharide d.; it contains not less than 10 units per mg and not less than 14% of sulfate; an anticoagulant.

* * *

dex·tran 'dek-.stran, -strən n any of numerous biopolymers (C6H10O5)n of variable molecular weight that are produced esp. by the fermentation of sucrose by bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc (as L. mesenteroides), are found in dental plaque, and are used esp. after suitable chemical modification as blood plasma substitutes, as packing materials in chromatography, and as pharmaceutical agents compare LEVAN

* * *

n.
a carbohydrate, consisting of branched chains of glucose units, that is a storage product of bacteria and yeasts. Preparations of dextran solution are used in transfusions, to increase the volume of plasma.

* * *

dex·tran (dekґstrən) a high-molecular-weight polymer of D-glucose, produced by enzymes (glycosyltransferases) on the cell surface of certain lactic acid bacteria. Dextrans, formed from sucrose by bacteria in the mouth, adhere to the tooth surfaces and produce dental plaque, a major cause of dental caries. Uniform molecular weight dextrans from Leuconostoc mesenteroides preparations are used as plasma volume expanders. Specific preparations are designated, according to their average molecular weight in thousands, as dextran 40 [USP], dextran 70 [USP], and so on. Commercial preparations in bead form are also used in gel-filtration chromatography.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dextran — Identifiers CAS number 9004 54 0 …   Wikipedia

  • Dextran 1 — is a hapten inhibitor that greatly reduces the risk for anaphylactic reactions when administering dextran.[1] Mechanism Dextran 1 is composed of a small fraction (1 kilodalton) of the entire dextran complex. This is enough to bind anti dextran… …   Wikipedia

  • dextran — ● dextran nom masculin Dextrane obtenu par action de la bactérie Leuconostoc mesenteroides sur le saccharose ou préparé par synthèse, utilisé comme succédané du sang. dextran [dɛkstʀɑ̃] n. m. ÉTYM. D. i. (mil XXe); all. Dextran, 1874,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • dextran — dextrán s. m., pl. dextráni Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic …   Dicționar Român

  • dextran — [deks′tran΄, deks′trən] n. [ DEXTR + AN] a chainlike polymer of glucose produced by certain strains of bacteria acting on sucrose, as in sugar refinery tanks, in various fermentation processes, or in the formation of dental plaque: it is used as… …   English World dictionary

  • dextran — n. a carbohydrate, consisting of branched chains of glucose units, that is a storage product of bacteria and yeasts. Preparations of dextran solution are used in transfusions, to increase the volume of plasma …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • dextran — dekstranas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Bakterijų polisacharidas, susidedantis iš D gliukozės liekanų. formulė Formulę žr. priede. priedas( ai) Grafinis formatas atitikmenys: angl. dextran; starch gum rus. декстран …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • dextran — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1879 any of numerous glucose biopolymers of variable molecular weight that are produced especially by the fermentation of sucrose by bacteria (as genus Leuconostoc), are found in dental… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Dextran — Dextrane sind hochmolekulare, verzweigte, neutrale Biopolysaccharide, die Hefen und Bakterien als Reservestoffe dienen. Da die Polymere nur aus Glucose Einheiten bestehen, zählen sie zu den Homoglykanen. Natürliche Dextrane besitzen Molekülmassen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • dextran — /dek streuhn/, n. Chem., Pharm. a viscous polysaccharide, composed of dextrose, produced by bacterial action on sucrose: used in confections and lacquers and in medicine chiefly as an extender for blood plasma. [1875 80; DEXTR(OSE) + AN(HYDRIDE)] …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.