detergent

1. Cleansing. 2. A cleansing or purging agent, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids ( e.g., quaternary ammonium or sulfonic acid compounds) which, through a surface action that depends on their possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antibacterial effects; acridine derivatives ( e.g., acriflavine, proflavine) as well as other dyes ( e.g., brilliant green, crystal violet) have d. properties for the same reasons. SYN: detersive. [L. de-tergeo, pp. -tersus, to wipe off]
- anionic detergents detergents, such as soaps (alkali metal salts of long-chain fatty acid s), that carry a negative electric charge on a lipidlike molecule and exert a limited antibacterial effect.
- cationic detergents detergents, such as the amine salts or quaternary ammonium or pyridinium compounds of long-chain fatty acid s, that have positively charged groups attached to the larger hydrophobic portions.

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de·ter·gent di-'tər-jənt adj having a cleansing action
detergent n a cleansing agent: as
a) SOAP (1)
b) any of numerous synthetic water-soluble or liquid organic preparations that are chemically different from soaps but are able to emulsify oils, hold dirt in suspension, and act as wetting agents

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n.
a synthetic cleansing agent that removes all impurities from a surface by reacting with grease and suspended particles, including bacteria and other microorganisms. Some detergents, e.g. cetrimide, are used solely for cleansing; others may be used as antiseptic and disinfectant.

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de·ter·gent (de-turґjənt) [L. detergere to cleanse] 1. purifying, cleansing. 2. an agent which purifies or cleanses. 3. in biochemistry, any of a class of agents structurally consisting of a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain attached to a polar head group, which reduce the surface tension of water, emulsify, and aid in the solubilization of soil.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Synonyms:

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  • détergent — détergent, ente [ detɛrʒɑ̃, ɑ̃t ] adj. et n. m. • 1611; a. méd. « qui nettoie (une plaie) »; lat. detergens, p. prés. de detergere « nettoyer » 1 ♦ Qui nettoie en entraînant par dissolution les impuretés. ⇒ lessiviel. 2 ♦ N. m. (XXe) Substance… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • detergent — DETERGÉNT, Ă, detergenţi, te, s.m., adj. (Produs) care (dizolvat în apă) are proprietatea de a spăla, de a curăţa, de a degresa. – Din fr. détergent. Trimis de IoanSoleriu, 16.07.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  detergént adj. m., s. m., pl. detergénţi; …   Dicționar Român

  • Detergent — Détergent Un détergent (ou agent de surface, détersif, surfactant) est un composé chimique, généralement issu du pétrole, doté de propriétés tensioactives, ce qui le rend capable d enlever les salissures. La détersion est un élément d hygiène… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • détergent — détergent, ente (dé tèr jan, jan t ) adj. Terme de médecine. Qui déterge.    Substantivement. Un détergent. Les détergents …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Detergent — De*ter gent, a. [L. detergens, entis, p. pr. of detergere: cf. F. d[ e]tergent.] Cleansing; purging. n. A substance which cleanses the skin, as water or soap; a medicine to cleanse wounds, ulcers, etc. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • detergent — (adj.) 1610s, from L. detergentem (nom. detergens), prp. of detergere to wipe away, cleanse, from de off, away (see DE (Cf. de )) + tergere to rub, polish, wipe. Originally a medical term, application to chemical cleansing product is from 1938.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • detergent —  Detergent  Детергент   Моющее вещество, поверхностно активное (дифильное) вещество, относящееся к мылам – солям высших жирных кислот. В настоящее время к детергентам относят синтетические вещества, по моющему действию сходные с мылом.… …   Толковый англо-русский словарь по нанотехнологии. - М.

  • detergent — [n] soap cleaner, solvent; concept 492 …   New thesaurus

  • detergent — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż I, D. u, Mc. detergentncie {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} środek chemiczny niezawierający mydła, mający właściwości myjące, piorące, usuwające zanieczyszczenia z powierzchni czegoś (zwykle tkanin) <łac.> {{/stl 7}} …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • detergent — ► NOUN ▪ a soluble cleansing agent which combines with impurities and dirt to make them more soluble. ► ADJECTIVE ▪ relating to detergents or their action. ORIGIN from Latin detergere wipe away …   English terms dictionary

  • detergent — [dē tʉr′jənt, ditʉr′jənt] adj. [L detergens, prp. of detergere: see DETERGE] cleansing n. a cleansing substance; specif., a surface active chemical preparation, as, now esp., a linear alkyl sulfonate, that is capable of emulsifying dirt or oil:… …   English World dictionary

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