conjugation

1. The union of two unicellular organisms or of the male and female gametes of multicellular forms followed by partition of the chromatin and the production of two new cells. 2. Bacterial c., effected by simple contact, usually by means of specialized pili through which transfer genes and other genes of the plasmid are transferred to recipient bacteria. 3. Sexual reproduction among protozoan ciliates, during which two individuals of appropriate mating types fuse along part of their lengths; their macronuclei degenerate and the micronuclei in each macronucleus divide several times (including a meiotic division); one of the resulting haploid pronuclei passes from each conjugant into the other and fuses with the remaining haploid nucleus in each conjugant; the organisms then separate (becoming exconjugants), undergo nuclear reorganization, and subsequently divide by asexual mitosis. 4. The combination, especially in the liver, of certain toxic substances formed in the intestine, drugs, or steroid hormones with glucuronic or sulfuric acid; a means by which the biologic activity of certain chemical substances is terminated and the substances made ready for excretion. 5. The formation of glycyl or tauryl derivatives of the bile acids. 6. An alternating sequence of multiple and single chemical bonds in a chemical compound in which there is some delocalization of π-electrons. 7. The joining together of two compounds. [L. con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]

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con·ju·ga·tion .kän-jə-'gā-shən n
1) the act of conjugating: the state of being conjugated
2 a) fusion of usu. similar gametes with ultimate union of their nuclei that occurs in most fungi and in some algae (as green algae)
b) temporary cytoplasmic union with exchange of nuclear material that is the usual sexual process in ciliated protozoans
c) the one-way transfer of DNA between bacteria in cellular contact
con·ju·ga·tion·al -shnəl, -shən-əl adj

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n.
the union of two microorganisms in which genetic material (DNA) passes from one organism to the other. In bacteria minute projections on the donor 'male' cell (pili) form a bridge with the recipient 'female' cell; the exact function of the pili is not known, but they are believed to have an important role in conjugation.

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con·ju·ga·tion (kon″jə-gaґshən) [L. conjugatio a blending] 1. the act of joining together or conjugating, or the state of being joined or conjugated. 2. a sexual process seen in bacteria, ciliate protozoa, and certain fungi in which nuclear material is exchanged during the temporary fusion of two cells (conjugants). In bacterial genetics, a form of sexual reproduction in which a donor bacterium (male) contributes some, or all, of its DNA (in the form of a replicated set) to a recipient (female), which then incorporates differing genetic information into its own chromosome by recombination and passes the recombined set on to its progeny by replication. In ciliate protozoa, two conjugants of separate mating types exchange micronuclear material and then separate, each now being a fertilized cell. In certain fungi, the process involves fusion of two gametes, resulting in union of their nuclei and formation of a zygote. 3. in chemistry, the joining together of two compounds to produce another compound, such as the combination of a toxic product with a substance in the body to form a detoxified product that can then be eliminated, or the binding of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to cytotoxic drugs in immunotherapy.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Conjugation — Con ju*ga tion, n. [L. conjugatio conjugation (in senses 1 & 3).] 1. the act of uniting or combining; union; assemblage. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] Mixtures and conjugations of atoms. Bentley. [1913 Webster] 2. Two things conjoined; a pair; a couple.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • conjugation — conjugation. См. конъюгация. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Conjugation — (v. lat.), die Art u. Weise, wie ein Verbum conjugirt, d.h. durch angehängte Endungen, Vorsetzsylben u. durch Verwandlung des Vocals der Stammsylbe abgebeugt wird, daß dadurch die verschiedenen Personen, Numeri, Tempora, Modi u. Genera bezeichnet …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Conjugation — Conjugation, Flexion oder Beugung eines Zeitwortes nach seinen Personal , Zahl , Art oder Rede , Zeit und Geschlechtsformen. Die Gesetze der Sprachenbildung haben in der latein. und französ. Sprache 4, in der italien. 3, in der griech. 2 C.en in… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • conjugation — index coalescence, combination, joinder Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • conjugation — mid 15c., from L. conjugationem (nom. conjugatio) a combining, connecting, noun of action from conjugare to join together (see CONJUGAL (Cf. conjugal)). Grammatical sense is 1520s …   Etymology dictionary

  • conjugation — [kän΄jə gā′shən] n. [ME conjugacion < L conjugatio] 1. a conjugating or being conjugated; union 2. Biol. any of various types of sexual reproduction in which certain algae, fungi, etc. exchange genetic material 3. Gram. a) a methodical… …   English World dictionary

  • Conjugation — Conjugal redirects here. For the type of prison visit, see conjugal visit. Conjugation may refer to: Grammatical conjugation, the modification of a verb from its basic form Marriage, a relationship between two or more individuals Contents 1… …   Wikipedia

  • conjugation — conjugational, adj. conjugationally, adv. /kon jeuh gay sheuhn/, n. 1. Gram. a. the inflection of verbs. b. the whole set of inflected forms of a verb or the recital or display thereof in a fixed order: The conjugation of the Latin verb amo… …   Universalium

  • conjugation — UK [ˌkɒndʒʊˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] / US [ˌkɑndʒəˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] noun [countable] Word forms conjugation : singular conjugation plural conjugations linguistics 1) the way that you conjugate a particular verb the conjugation of the verb to see 2) a group of verbs… …   English dictionary

  • conjugation — noun Date: 15th century 1. a. a schematic arrangement of the inflectional forms of a verb b. verb inflection c. a class of verbs having the same type of inflectional forms < the weak conjugation > d. a set of the simple or derivative …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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