chloramphenicol

An antibiotic originally obtained from Streptomyces venezuelae. It is effective against a number of pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella abortus, Friedländer bacillus, and the organisms of typhoid, typhus, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever; active by mouth. A serious reaction resulting in marrow damage with agranulocytosis or aplastic anemia may occur. Gray baby syndrome may occur in newborns due to a lack of glucoronyltransferase needed to metabolize the drug.
- c. acetyl transferase (CAT) a bacterial enzyme often used as a marker for examining the control of eucaryotic gene expression.
- c. palmitate same action and use as c.; was widely used in suspension for pediatric injections.
- c. sodium succinate the water-soluble sodium succinate derivative of c., suitable for parenteral administration; antibacterial activity, uses, and side effect s are similar to those of the parent compound.

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chlor·am·phen·i·col .klōr-.am-'fen-i-.kȯl, .klȯr-, -.kōl n a broad-spectrum antibiotic C11H12Cl2N2O5 isolated from cultures of a soil actinomycete of the genus Streptomyces (S. venezuelae) or prepared synthetically see CHLOROMYCETIN

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n.
an antibiotic, derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and also produced synthetically, that is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, due to its serious side-effects, especially damage to the bone marrow, it is usually reserved for serious infections (such as typhoid fever) when less toxic drugs are ineffective. It is also used, in the form of eye drops or ointment, to treat bacterial conjunctivitis. Trade names: Chloromycetin, Kemicetine.

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chlor·am·phen·i·col (klor″əm-fenґĭ-kol) [USP] a broad-spectrum antibiotic, originally derived from Streptomyces venezuelae and later shown to be elaborated by other spirochetes, and produced synthetically. It is effective against rickettsiae, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and certain spirochetes, being used especially in the treatment of typhus and other rickettsial infections and in typhoid, shigellosis, and related enteric diseases; used as an antibacterial, administered orally or applied topically to the conjunctiva or ear, or as an antirickettsial, administered orally.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chloramphenicol — Systematic (IUPAC) name …   Wikipedia

  • Chloramphenicol — Chloramphénicol Chloramphénicol Général …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chloramphénicol — Général …   Wikipédia en Français

  • chloramphénicol — [ klɔrɑ̃fenikɔl ] n. m. • 1947; nom déposé, du rad. de chlore ♦ Chim. Antibiotique actif sur un grand nombre de bactéries (staphylocoques, streptocoques, bacilles de la typhoïde, de la coqueluche, du typhus exanthématique). ⇒ typhomycine. ●… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • chloramphenicol — chloramphenicol. См. хлоромицетин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • chloramphenicol — [klôr΄am fen′i kôl΄, klôr΄am fen′ikōl΄] n. [ CHLOR(O) + AM(IDE) + PHE(N) + NI(TRO) + (GLY)COL] an antibiotic drug, C11H12Cl2N2O5, prepared synthetically or isolated from a bacillus ( Streptomyces venezuelae) …   English World dictionary

  • Chloramphenicol — Strukturformel Allgemeines Freiname Chloramphenicol Andere Name …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • chloramphenicol — /klawr am fen i kawl , kol , klohr /, n. Pharm. a colorless, crystalline, slightly water soluble antibiotic, C11H12Cl2N2O5, obtained from cultures of Streptomyces venezuelae or synthesized: used chiefly in the treatment of infections caused by… …   Universalium

  • Chloramphenicol — Chlor|am|phe|ni|col [Kurzw. aus Chlor, Amid, Phenyl , Nitro u. Glykol], das; s: aus Streptomyceskulturfl. isoliertes, heute synthetisch hergestelltes Breitbandantibiotikum. * * * Chlor|amphenicol   [k ] das, s, internationaler Freiname für ein… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • chloramphenicol — n. an antibiotic, derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and also produced synthetically, that is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, due to its serious side effects, especially damage to the bone marrow, it… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • chloramphenicol — noun Etymology: chlor + amide + phen + nitr + glycol Date: 1949 a broad spectrum antibiotic C11H12Cl2N2O5 isolated from cultures of a soil actinomycete (Streptomyces venezuelae) or prepared synthetically …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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