bacteriophage

A virus with specific affinity for bacteria. Bacteriophages have been found in association with essentially all groups of bacteria, including the Cyanobacteria; like other viruses they contain either (but never both) RNA or DNA and vary in structure from the seemingly simple filamentous bacterial virus to relatively complex forms with contractile “tails”; their relationships to the host bacteria are highly specific and, as in the case of temperate b., may be genetically intimate. Bacteriophages are named after the bacterial species, group, or strain for which they are specific, e.g., corynebacteriophage, coliphage; a number of families are recognized and have been assigned provisional names: Corticoviridae, Cystoviridae, Fuselloviridae, Inoviridae, Leviviridae, Lipothrixviridae, Microviridae, Myoviridae, Plasmaviridae, Podoviridae, Styloviridae, and Tectiviridae. SEE ALSO: coliphage. SYN: phage. [bacterio- + G. phago, to eat]
- defective b. a temperate b. mutant whose genome does not contain all of the normal components and cannot become a fully infectious virus, yet can replicate indefinitely in the bacterial genome as defective probacteriophage; many defective bacteriophages are mediators of transduction. SYN: defective phage.
- filamentous b. a b. that is rod-shaped and elongated lacking the head-and-tail structure characteristic of many bacteriophages.
- mature b. the complete, infective form of b..
- temperate b. b. whose genome incorporates with, and replicates with, that of the host bacterium; dissociation (and resultant development of vegetative b.) occurs at a slow rate resulting occasionally in lysis of a bacterium and release of mature b., thus rendering the bacterial culture capable of inducing general lysis if transferred to a culture of a susceptible bacterial strain.
- typhoid b. b. specific for Salmonella typhi.
- vegetative b. the form of b. in which the b. nucleic acid (lacking its coat) multiplies freely within the host bacterium, independently of bacterial multiplication.
- virulent b. a b. that regularly causes lysis of the bacteria that it infects; it may exist in one or the other of only two forms, vegetative or mature; it does not have a probacteriophage form ( i.e., its genome does not incorporate with that of the host bacterium), therefore it does not effect lysogenization.

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bac·te·ri·o·phage bak-'tir-ē-ə-.fāj, -.fäzh n a virus that infects bacteria called also phage
bac·te·ri·oph·a·gy (.)bak-.tir-ē-'äf-ə-jē n, pl -gies

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n.
a virus that attacks bacteria. In general, a phage consists of a head, tail, and tail fibres, all composed of protein molecules, and a core of DNA. The tail and tail fibres are responsible for attachment to the bacterial surface and for injection of the DNA core into the host cell. The phage grows and replicates in the bacterial cell, which is eventually destroyed with the release of new phages. Each phage acts specifically against a particular species of bacterium. This is utilized in phage typing, a technique of identifying bacteria by the action of known phages on them. See also lysogeny.

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bac·te·rio·phage (bak-tērґe-o-fāj″) [bacterio- + -phage] a virus that lyses bacteria; see bacterial virus, under virus, and see phage typing, under typing. Called also phage. bacteriophagic adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • bacteriophage — acteriophage n. sing. & pl. a virus which infects bacteria; also colloquially called {phage} in laboratory jargon. Note: Bacteriophages are of many varieties, generally specific for one or a narrow range of bacterial species, and almost every… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bactériophage — [ bakterjɔfaʒ ] n. m. • 1918; de bactério et phage ♦ Biol. Virus à A. R. N. ou A. D. N. qui infecte des bactéries et provoque leur lyse. ⇒ phage. Adj. Des virus bactériophages. ● bactériophage nom masculin Virus infectant exclusivement les… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • bacteriophage — 1921, from Fr. bactériophage (1917), from bacterio , comb. form of BACTERIA (Cf. bacteria) + phage (see PHAGOUS (Cf. phagous)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • bacteriophage — bacteriophage. См. фаги. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • bacteriophage —  Bacteriophage  (Phage)  Бактериофаг (фаг)   Вирус, избирательно поражающий бактериальные клетки. Были первыми организмами, использовавшимися для исследований в области молекулярной генетики, а в настоящее время широко применяются в качестве… …   Толковый англо-русский словарь по нанотехнологии. - М.

  • bacteriophage — [bak tir′ē ə fāj΄] n. [ BACTERIO + PHAGE] any virus that infects bacteria …   English World dictionary

  • Bacteriophage — This article is about a biological infectious particle; for other uses, see phage (disambiguation). A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek φάγειν phagein to eat ) is any one of a number of viruses that infect bacteria. The term is commonly used …   Wikipedia

  • bacteriophage — bacteriophagic /bak tear ee euh faj ik, fay jik/, bacteriophagous /bak tear ee of euh geuhs/, adj. bacteriophagy /bak tear ee of euh jee/, n. /bak tear ee euh fayj /, n. any of a group of viruses that infect specific bacteria, usually causing… …   Universalium

  • Bactériophage — Cet article possède un paronyme, voir : FAGE. Un bactériophage (ou phage) est un virus n infectant que des bactéries. En grec, phageton signifie nourriture/consommation. On les appelle également virus bactériens. Ce sont des outils… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bactériophage T5 — Le bactériophage T5 est un virus caudé appartenant à la famille des Syphoviridae. Il possède donc une queue longue non contractile. C est un phage lytique qui infecte Escherichia coli. Il est constitué d’une capside icosaédrique contenant son… …   Wikipédia en Français

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