Bronchiectasis


Bronchiectasis
Permanent dilatation (widening) of the bronchi (the large air tubes which begin at the bottom of the trachea and branch into the lungs). Bronchiectasis can result in very serious illness including recurrent respiratory infections, a disabling cough, shortness of breath, and hemoptysis (coughing up blood). Chronic respiratory infection and the inflammatory response to the infection play key roles in the pathogenesis (development) of bronchiectasis. Immunodeficiency, cystic fibrosis, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (hereditary dysfunction of the cilia) predispose to bronchiectasis. Rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly ulcerative colitis, are also associated with bronchiectasis. The gold standard for the diagnosis of bronchiectasis is high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Bronchopulmonary hygiene is generally recommended and includes postural drainage, chest physiotherapy, thinning and loosening of secretions, and administration of a bronchodilator. Acute exacerbations of the disease must be treated promptly with antibiotics. Surgery may be indicated, for example, to remove parts of a lung that are the source of acute exacerbations or uncontrolled hemorrhage. .
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Chronic dilation of bronchi or bronchioles as a sequel of inflammatory disease or obstruction often associated with heavy sputum production. SYN: bronchiectasia. [bronchi- + G. ektasis, a stretching]
- congenital b. a rare form of b. due to developmental arrest in the tracheobronchial tree; may be unilateral or bilateral.
- cylindrical b. b. resulting in dilated bronchi of cylindrical shape; i.e., of uniform caliber.
- cystic b. b. in which the bronchi end in blind sacs greater in diameter than the draining bronchi. SEE ALSO: saccular b..
- dry b. b. characterized by lack of productive cough and by occasional hemoptysis. SYN: bronchiectasia sicca.
- saccular b. b. resulting in dilated bronchi of saccular or irregular shape. SEE ALSO: cystic b..
- varicose b. cylindrical b. with irregular constrictions resembling varicose veins in shape.

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bron·chi·ec·ta·sis .bräŋ-kē-'ek-tə-səs also bron·chi·ec·ta·sia -ek-'tā-zh(ē-)ə n, pl -ta·ses -.sēz also -ta·sias -zh(ē-)əz a chronic inflammatory or degenerative condition of one or more bronchi or bronchioles marked by dilatation and loss of elasticity of the walls
bron·chi·ec·tat·ic -ek-'tat-ik adj

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n.
widening of the bronchi or their branches. It may be congenital or it may result from infection (especially whooping cough or measles in childhood) or from obstruction, either by an inhaled foreign body or by a growth (including cancer). Pus may form in the widened bronchus so that the patient coughs up purulent sputum, which may contain blood. Diagnosis is on the clinical symptoms and by X-ray and CT scan. Treatment consists of antibiotic drugs to control the infection and physiotherapy to drain the sputum. Surgery may be used if only a few segments of the bronchi are affected.

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bron·chi·ec·ta·sis (brong″ke-ekґtə-sis) [bronchi- + ectasis] chronic dilatation of the bronchi marked by fetid breath and paroxysmal coughing, with the expectoration of mucopurulent matter. Types are distinguished according to the nature of the dilatations. Called also bronchiectasia. bronchiectasic, bronchiectatic adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bronchiectasis — is a disease that causes localized, irreversible dilatation of part of the bronchial tree. Involved bronchi are dilated, inflamed, and easily collapsible, resulting in airflow obstruction and impaired clearance of secretions. Bronchiectasis is… …   Wikipedia

  • bronchiectasis — (n.) Modern Latin, from Gk. bronkhia (see BRONCHIAL (Cf. bronchial)) + ektasis a stretching out, extension, dilation …   Etymology dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — [bräŋ΄kē ek′tə sis] n. [ModL < bronchus,BRONCHUS + Gr ektasis, a stretching out < ekteinein, to stretch out < ek , out + teinein, to stretch: see TEND2] an irreversible, chronic enlargement of certain bronchial tubes …   English World dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — bronchiectatic /brong kee ek tat ik/, adj. /brong kee ek teuh sis/, n. Pathol. a diseased condition in which a bronchus or the bronchi are distended, characterized by paroxysmal coughing and copious expectoration of sputum. [1875 80; bronchi ,… …   Universalium

  • bronchiectasis — noun (plural bronchiectases) Etymology: New Latin, from bronchi + Greek ektasis extension more at atelectasis Date: circa 1860 a chronic dilatation of bronchi or bronchioles …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — noun Abnormal permanent dilation of the bronchial tubes …   Wiktionary

  • bronchiectasis — n. enlargement of the large bronchial tubes (Medicine) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — bron·chi·ectasis …   English syllables

  • bronchiectasis — n. widening of the bronchi or their branches. It may be congenital or it may result from infection (especially whooping cough or measles in childhood) or from obstruction, either by an inhaled foreign body or by a growth (including cancer). Pus… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — bron•chi•ec•ta•sis [[t]ˌbrɒŋ kiˈɛk tə sɪs[/t]] n. pat a chronic disease of the bronchial tubes characterized by distention and paroxysmal coughing • Etymology: 1875–80; bronchi(a)+ Gkéktasisstretching out …   From formal English to slang


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