- Braille system
- A system of raised-dot writing devised by Louis Braille (1809-1852) for the blind in which each letter is represented as a raised pattern that can be read by touching with the fingers. The System: Each braille character or "cell" is made up of 6 dot positions that are arranged in a rectangle comprising 2 columns of 3 dots each. A dot may be raised at any of the 6 positions. Counting a space in which there is no dot raised, there are 2 to the 6th power (2x2x2x2x2x2 = 64) possible combinations. A specific combination is described by naming the positions where dots are raised. The positions are numbered 1 through 3 from top to bottom on the left, and 4 through 6 from top to bottom on the right. For example, a combination of dots 1-3-4 describes a cell with three dots raised, those dots being at the top and bottom in the left column and on top of the right column. The 1-3-4 combination denotes the letter "m" in French and in all other languages (including English) that use the Roman alphabet. The same 1-3-4 combination designates the letter "mu" in Greek and "mim" in Arabic (both of which have an "m" sound). The basis of the braille codes for all of the world's languages is the assignment of most of the dot patterns to letters of the alphabet, punctuation marks and other symbols. This is done with a certain consistency, quite often with reference to Louis Braille's original assignments (to the extent that is possible, given the great diversity of alphabets, accent marks, vocalization marks, etc). Because the 64 distinct characters are never enough to cover all possible print signs and their variants, it is necessary to use multi-character sequences for some purposes. Often this is accomplished by using certain characters as "prefixes" or "indicators" that affect the meaning of subsequent cells. For example, in English a dot 6 before a letter indicates that the letter is a capital, whereas otherwise it is understood to be lower case. For another example, dots 3-4-5-6, called the "numeric indicator", causes certain following letters (a through j) to be reinterpreted as digits. Other Braille Codes: Separate braille codes can be used for notation systems such as music, mathematics and computer programming, and even for pursuits such as chess. The basis of such codes remains an association between the 64 possible braille characters and the symbols and other notational elements of interest. There is current research, under the auspices of the International Council on English Braille (ICEB), as to whether some of these separate codes, notably for mathematics and the sciences, should be combined along with the literary code into a single Unified Braille Code (UBC) for English. Louis Braille: Louis Braille was born with normal sight. At age 3, while playing in his father's harnessmaking shop, he injured an eye with a sharp tool, an awl. The eye became infected and the infection affected his other eye, leaving him entirely blind. After succeeding brilliantly in the local school, he was sent at age 10 to the Royal Institution for Blind Youth in Paris.
Medical dictionary. 2011.
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Braille technology — is capable of revolutionizing the lives of thousands of people because it allows them to engage in the virtual world that can not be perceived through their eyes. Braille Technology allows blind or visually impaired people to do common tasks such … Wikipedia
Braille — Infobox Writing system name = Braille type = Alphabet typedesc = (non linear writing) time = 1821 to the present languages = Several fam1 = Night writing creator = Louis Braille unicode = [http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U2800.pdf U+2800 to… … Wikipedia
Braille — The system of writing and printing for the blind, known as Braille, is eponymous for Louis Braille, its inventor (1809 1852). Braille was blinded at age three. While playing in his father s harness repair shop in Coupvray, near Paris, he drove … Dictionary of eponyms
Braille, Louis — born Jan. 4, 1809, Coupvray, near Paris, France died Jan. 6, 1852, Paris French educator who developed the Braille system of printing and writing for the blind. Himself blinded at the age of three in an accident, he went to Paris in 1819 to… … Universalium
Braille music — is a Braille code that allows music to be notated using Braille cells so that music can be read by visually impaired musicians. The Braille music system was originally developed by Louis Braille. Braille cell, 2 dots wide by 3 dots high Braille… … Wikipedia
Braille — [brāl] n. [after L. Braille (1809 52), blind Fr teacher who devised it] [also b ] 1. a system of printing and writing for the blind, in which characters are formed by patterns of raised dots which are felt with the fingers 2. the characters used… … English World dictionary
Braille — Braille, n. A system of printing or writing for the blind in which the characters and numerals are represented by patterns of raised tangible points or dots. It was invented by Louis Braille, a French teacher of the blind. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Braille,Louis — Braille, Louis. 1809 1852. French musician, educator, and inventor of a writing and printing system for blind or visually impaired people (1829). He lost his sight at the age of three. * * * … Universalium
Braille, Louis — • French educator and inventorof the system of writing in raised or relief points for the blind (1809 1852) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
braille — [ breıl ] noun uncount a reading system for blind people that uses small raised marks that they feel with their fingers … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English